this schedule will shift a bit over the course of the semester — be sure to check back weekly
no lab sections this week
band practice. overview of course structure, logistics, and policies.
08.28 Spinning records
The invention of the phonograph in 1877 allowed for sound to be recorded and reproduced. The phonograph’s wax cylinders were eventually replaced by the spinning discs of the gramophone, an early record player. In tracing the evolution and influence of the record player through the 20th Century, we examine how playing records shaped music and how musical ideas, in turn, shaped the record player. Today we will look at how the spinning record has been refigured in the hands of experimental composers, 70s Disco DJs, early Hip-Hop musicians, and current conceptual artists, introducing the questions that propel this course…
Before recording media—wire, wax, vinyl, tape, plastic, silicon, etc—sound disappeared with time, an fading echo was the only record. But the phonograph detached sound from the here and now of its source and stored it in a material — readable and malleable. Etched in vinyl, sound can be saved, traded, and manipulated, and in time, playback came to reframe play…
“Sounds just like the record.”
Lab requirements, expectations, grading. Introduction to Audacity.
08.30 Early Electronic Instruments
How did people make electronic music before computers, analog synthesizers, and electric guitars? who pioneered the use of electrons for musical purposes? and why? From instruments the size of buildings to magic ‘air’ oscillators, we’ll explore the early days of electronic musical instruments.
We should also remember that no machine is a wizard, as we are beginning to think, and we must not expect our electronic devices to compose for us. Good music and bad music will be composed by electronic means, just as good and bad music have been composed for instruments. The computing machine is a marvelous invention and seems almost superhuman. But, in reality, it is as limited as the mind of the individual who feeds it material. Like the computer, the machines we use for making music can only give back what we put into them.
Edgard Varése, The Liberation of Sound
Watch Clara Rockmore play “The Swan” by Saint-Saëns (video)
09.04 What is Sound?
Sound can be described as waves of compression and rarefaction that propagate through the air or some other elastic medium. It is also our perception of these movements. Sound is generated by vibrating objects (a string, a speaker, a falling rock, the movements of our circulatory systems). In order to explore methods for organizing and manipulating sound, it is helpful to first investigate the physics of sound (broadly, acoustics) and how we perceive sound (psychoacoustics). Although a satisfactory answer to the question, What is sound?, might evade our grasp, there are components and characteristics of sound that will help us to discuss, visualize and manipulate it. When we talk about sound, it is good to keep in mind that it has physical characteristics that can be measured, the amplitude and frequency of fluctuations in air pressure, and perceived characteristics, loudness and pitch. The wikipedia definition alludes to this dual nature…
In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as a typically audible mechanical wave of pressure and displacement, through a medium such as air or water. In physiology and psychology, sound is the reception of such waves and their perception by the brain.
09.06 Timbre and Noise
Beyond Amplitude (loudness) and Frequency (pitch), there is another more nebulous characteristic of sound that we call timbre. Timbre might be perceived as the quality or texture of the sound and it is largely determined by spectral content or overtones as well as durational aspects like the sound’s envelope (attack and decay). Another element that effects a sound’s timbre is noise, or the unpredictable, aperiodic fluctuations within a sound. In 1913, Italian Futurist composer Luigi Russolo penned a now famous ‘noise manifesto’ called The Art of Noise…
Read The Art of Noise by Luigi Russolo
Introduction to Assignment 1 (Collage Beats). Introduction to Garage Band.
09.11 Class Cancelled 🙁
09.13 Tape Music and the European Centers
How has the practice of manipulating recorded sounds influenced the way we understand music (and sound)? Music Concrete and early tape music become objects for thinking about the materiality of sound and abstract nature of notated music.
“…Photography, whether the fact be denied or admitted, has completely upset painting, just as the recording of sound is about to upset music … . For all that, traditional music is not denied; any more than the theatre is supplanted by the cinema. Something new is added: a new art of sound. Am I wrong in still calling it music?”
– Pierre Schaeffer
Read Thom Holmes, Chapter 2 (on collab)
Cinq études de bruits (1948) // Pierre Schaeffer
Symphonie pour un homme seul (1949-50) // Pierre Schaeffer & Pierre Henry
Dripsody (1955) // Hugh Le Caine
Poem Electronique (1958) // Edgar Varese
Concret PH (1958) // Iannis Xenakis
Time to work on Collage Beats Assignment. Assignment 1 Due At End of Week.
09.15 Project One due by 5pm
09.18 Electric Guitar and Parallel Realities
The electric guitar, multi-track tape recording, and audio effects modules influenced popular music as well. We will look at the ways in which the techniques used by Cage, Schaeffer, Oram, and Stockhausen made their way into the musical mainstream. What new genres and possibilities grew out of multi-track recording? How did the roles of performer and engineer begin to blur?
Muddy Waters, Catfish Blues
Les Paul, Lover
The Beach Boys, Pet Sounds (full album)
The Beatles, Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band (full album)
Post-Collage Beats Assignment Discussion. Introduction to Assignment 2 (Ambient Textures)
09.20 Indeterminacy and Improvisation in Live Electronic Music
How do John Cage’s theories of indeterminacy and chance operation inform the performance of electronic music? What does it mean to “play the laptop”? How can performers of live electronic music engage with their audience? We will investigate the ways in which the American Avant-Garde, improvisation, and new technologies can inspire fresh concepts of what it means to be a composer, performer, and instrument builder in the world of live electronic music.
listen / watch…
William’s Mix by John Cage
Minecat by Ikue Mori
Rocket Science (Sam Pluta on laptop) improvisation set
09.25 Innovations in Rock Music
The Beatles, The Velvet Underground, Hendrix, Pink Floyd, and Frank Zappa were just a few of the artists to release influential albums in 1967. As civil rights movements, war protests, peace gatherings dominated the cultural landscape, popular music added volume, distortion, and politics. We’ll examine the artists, music, and technologies that drove music into the 70s — effects pedals, amplifiers, psychedelics, and studio albums — by looking at a few landmark albums, all released in 1967.
Purple Haze and Wind Cries Mary from Are You Experienced? (1967)
The Velvet Underground & Nico (1967)
The Velvet Underground
Unfinished Music No. 1 (1968)
John Lennon & Yoko Ono
How do analog synthesizers work? We’ll explore analog synthesis and the music that grew out of these new instruments. We’ll look at the standard components of a modular synthesizer (VCO, VCF, Envelopes, and LFOs). Wendy Carlos and Isao Tomita brought the sounds of Moog to the masses by performing covers of classical music pieces. The Minimoog was the first portable synth used by Keith Emmerson, Yes, Kraftwerk, Pink Floyd, and countless others. Lastly, we’ll do some live exploration of the Minimoog with our resident synth expert, Travis Thatcher.
Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 (1968) 6′ – Wendy Carlos
Phaedra (1974) 17′ – Tangerine Dream
A Sky of Cloudless Sulfur (1978) 20′ – Morton Subotnick
10.03 No Class – Reading Day – No labs this week
10.04 Spectral Music
We will discuss how composers utilize spectral information to compose & perform new music. The discussion will begin with an analysis of techniques pioneered by French “Spectral” composers, such as Gerard Grisey & Tristan Murail. We will take an in-depth look at Grisey’s piece Partiels, specifically examining how emergent computer technologies in the mid 1970’s informed compositional procedures within the French Spectral movement. We will trace Grisey’s process of gathering spectral data from the Low E of a trombone, analyzing the contents using Fourier analysis, transcribing harmonic partials, and additively “re-synthesizing” the trombone’s spectra using a live orchestra. From Spectral Music, we will move into the early 1980’s to examine one of Glenn Branca’s early works, Symphony No. 3, Gloria (Music for the First 127 Intervals of the Harmonic Series). In addition to the more overtly spectral characteristics of the piece, we will begin to examine how analysis of sound spectra, specifically those intervals found high in the harmonic series, can inform the construction of new tuning systems and scales. Whereas intervals found between partials in the lower reaches of the harmonic series form the basis for familiar scales and chords, intervals found higher in the series represent sometimes drastic, deviations from these familiar structures. We refer to these deviations from familiar tuning practice as “microtones.”
Partiels by Gerard Grisey
No labs this week!
10.09 Ambient Music
An ambience is defined as an atmosphere, or a surrounding influence: a tint. My intention is to produce original pieces ostensibly (but not exclusively) for particular times and situations with a view to building up a small but versatile catalogue of environmental music suited to a wide variety of moods and atmospheres. ~ Brian Eno
Starting with Satie’s idea of “Furniture Music” and moving through different formulations of ambient music in the 20th century, we will look at a variety of composers whose music plays between foreground and background, expression and function. Wendy Carlos combined field recordings with synthesizer tones in Sonic Seasonings and Tangerine Dream produced long evolving textural synthesized soundscapes, both in the early 70s. In 1978, Brian Eno used the term, Ambient Music, in describing his canonical album Music for Airports.
Ambient Music (pdf) by Brian Eno
Furniture Music: For the arrival of the guests (Grand Entrance) (1917) by Erik Satie
Sonic Seasonings (1972) by Wendy Carlos
World Rhythms (1975) by Annea Lockwood
World Receiver (1996) by Tetsu Inoue
Music for Airports (1978) by Brian Eno
Selected Ambient Works 85-92 (1992) by Aphex Twin
Talking Rain (1997) by Hildegard Westerkamp
Focus on Timbre Assignment (Project 2)
10.11 Sequencing and Automation
I automate whatever can be automated to be freer to focus on those aspects of music that can’t be automated. The challenge is to figure out which is which. — Laurie Spiegel
Hardware sequencers let musicians step away from their instruments and listen, tweak their sounds, and explore the “aesthetics of the machine”. Today we’ll explore different techniques for sequencing and automating sounds.
10.16 Project 2 Due (5pm)
10.16 Midterm Review
midterm review sheet (pdf)
listening examples (link to dropbox zip)
Since I have always preferred making plans to executing them, I have gravitated towards situations and systems that, once set into operation, could create music with little or no intervention on my part. That is to say, I tend towards the roles of the planner and programmer, and then become an audience to the results.
~ Brian Eno, Notes for Discrete Music
Looping, polyrhythm and polymeter, phasing.
Music as a Gradual Process (pdf) by Steve Reich
In C (1964) – Terry Riley
Come Out (1966) – Steve Reich
Piano Phase (1967) – Steve Reich
Einstein on the Beach (1975) – Philip Glass
Book of Days (1990) – Meridith Monk
10.18 Midterm Exam
10.23 Digital Audio and Early Computer Music
Today we’ll cover Digital Encoding (PCM) and learn how Sampling Rate and Bit Depth allow us to record and store sound as digital information on a computer. We’ll also listen to some early computer music by Max Matthews, James Tenney, and Laurie Spiegel, among others.
Read Chapter 5: Digital Sound – Jeffrey Haas
Read Laurie Spiegel – The Expanding Universe Liner Notes (pdf)
Numerology (1960) – Max Matthews
Stria (1977) – John Chowning
The Expanding Universe (1980, created 1974-1977) – Laurie Spiegel
Idle Chatter (1985) – Paul Lansky
10.25 Digital Sampling and Drum Machines
10.30 Disco, Synthpop, and Digital Synthesis
Today we’ll explore the nebulous and complicated genres of Disco and Synthpop, focusing on music AS a technology in addition to the technologies used in making the music. We’ll think about the power of music to build community and cultures that formed around the discotheques of the late 70s. Along the way, we will listen to music by Gloria Gaynor, Tom Moutlon, Donna Summer + Giorgio Moroder, Chic, Michael Jackson, Prince, Yellow Magic Orchestra, Kate Bush, the Eurythmics, and more! Exhausting! like a night of dancing at Studio 54.
Chic: “Good Times”
Gloria Gaynor: “I Will Survive”
Donna Summer: “I Feel Love”
Village People: “YMCA”
Michael Jackson: “Billy Jean”
Prince: “When Doves Cry”
Yellow Magic Orchestra: “Computer Game”
Gary Numan: “Are Friends Electric”
Kate Bush: “Running Up That Hill”
Human League: “Don’t You Want Me Baby”
11.01 House, Techno, and the origins of EDM
This session will explore the origins of electronic dance music (EDM) from both cultural and technical perspectives. We’ll look at the role specific technologies (the 303, 808, etc) played in the development of House and Techno music and focus on three loci of activity in the US: Chicago (House), Detroit (Techno), and NYC (Garage).
Read this excerpt by Simon Reynolds
11.06 Dub and Hip Hop
Today we’ll explore the technologies of Dub music — sound systems, mixers, delay and space effects — and look at the influence of Dub on early Hip Hop. We’ll start with Lee “Scratch” Perry and King Tubby in 1960s-70s Jamaica and then move to New York, where Kool Herc, Afrika Bambaataa, and others built the cultural and musical foundations for Hip Hop (also Drum and Bass, Trip Hop, Dubstep, and other forms). In addition to the technologies of production we’ll also examine technologies of distribution — dub plates and cassette tapes — and the musical communities that form around these mediums.
King Tubby Meets Rockers Uptown – Augustus Pablo and King Tubby
Planet Rock – Afrika Bambaataa & the Soul Sonic Force
Fight the Power – Public Enemy
Ladies First – Queen Latifah
Juicy – Notorious B.I.G.
Project 3 Due (5pm)
“Human culture is always derivative, and music perhaps especially so. We hear music, process it, reconfigure it, and create something derivative but new…” (Keller) Sampling and remixing are techniques by which new music is created from of pre-existing music. The technique is as old as music, but digital sampling allows for sampling of a different order. Today we’ll look at the history and experimental practices associated with cut-ups, remixes, and mash-ups across multiple genres — hip hop, experimental, pop.
Musician as Thief by Daphne Keller
11.13 Sound & Image
How do visuals and non-sounds contribute to the creation of musical experience? Videos, film, memes, subcultures, genre, branding, myth, platform, dance – all elements that can shape the way we engage with and interpret music without even including the sound aspect. In a culture always plugged into the internet, social media, and current events, how has sound been integrated into everything, and everything integrated into music? Is this something new and technology dependent, or has this always been the case?
11.15 Sound Art & Sound Installation
‘Sound Art’ describes practices which use sound and listening as the primary subject matter and material. Sound Art is intermedial in that it doesn’t fit cleanly into traditional categories like music, sculpture, painting, etc. Today we’ll focus on a few of these intermedial spaces and try to find ways of grappling with these ‘out of place’ sonic arts.
Read Sound Art by Max Neuhaus
Watch / Listen
11.20 Electronic Voices
The human voice is intricately tangled in music since, probably, its inception. How do the possibilities of recording change the way we think about, write for, and listen to the voice? How do we use computers to alter the sound of the voice, both for practical and artistic reasons? How do words, phrases, syllables, even mouth sounds and breathing add semantic meaning to a piece of music?
11.22 Thanksgiving Break
11.27 Controllers and Digital Interfaces
“By the late twentieth century, our time, a mythic time, we are all chimeras, theorized and fabricated hybrids of machine and organism; in short, we are cyborgs. The cyborg is our ontology; it gives us our politics. The cyborg is a condensed image of both imagination and material reality, the two joined centers structuring any possibility of historical transformation.” ~ Donna j. Haraway, “A Cyborg Manifesto” (1991)
11.29 Review + Technosonic Futures
Final Review Slides (pdf) – a selection of important slides from the semester. This is a starting place for review and if you are familiar with the people and understand the concepts on these slides you will certainly pass the test. All readings and lecture materials are fair game and if you attended all of the lectures you are in good shape.
Final Listening Examples (zip) – The listening is not cumulative. You will only be tested on the included examples. For each example you should be able to identify the people and technologies employed.